By Ronald B. Corley
Millions of tools were built within the quite a few biomedical disciplines, and people lined during this booklet symbolize the fundamental, crucial and most generally used equipment in numerous diverse disciplines.
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The most common forms of chromatography are summarized below. Gel filtration (or “size exclusion”) chromatography Gel filtration chromatography is based on a sieving method in which proteins are separated on the base of their size. Usually, columns are packed with a porous gel. The pores in the gel, which are essentially small holes, allow molecules of a predefined size or smaller to enter the pores, whereas the larger molecules are excluded. These larger molecules flow quickly through the gel and exit the column first, while the smaller molecules flow more slowly.
A number of methods have been developed to determine whether a protein exists in native form or as part of a higher order polymer within cells. Non-reducing/non-denaturing gels and gradients These are often used to isolate proteins from cellular extracts in their native states. The identities of the component chains can then be identified by resolving them on denaturing and reducing/denaturing gels to determine if proteins are non-covalently or covalently associated, as described in detail earlier in this chapter.
The use of RFLPs to help map genes involved in human diseases was first suggested by David Botstein (13), and is now widely used not only to help map genes that contribute to diseases, but in forensics for the precise identification of DNA samples (see below). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) SNPs are single base pair variations in the DNA sequence of an individual gene. They occur in the human population at a relatively high Detection and Analysis of Nucleic Acids 31 frequency and are very abundant, occurring at a rate of about 1 per 1000 base pairs.
A Guide to Methods in the Biomedical Sciences by Ronald B. Corley